Phase 2. Adding fare gates

In the first phase, we created the model simulating a simple pedestrian flow: passengers enter the subway entrance building and go to the trains walking through the hall.

Now we want passengers to pass through the fare gates before entering the subway platform. So let's add fare gates at the end of the corridor.

Adding services

Fare gates are a typical example of services used in pedestrian models.

There are two types of space markup shapes you may use to draw services in your pedestrian model:

Service with Lines - Used to define services where pedestrians wait in queue lines until the service becomes available.

Service with Area - Used to define services with electronic queue. Pedestrians in this case do not stand in lines, but wait in the neighboring area.

Fare gates are naturally represented by Service with Lines.

Draw the fare gates

  1. Drag the Service with Lines element from the Space Markup section of the Pedestrian Library palette into the graphical editor. You will see two service points and two queue lines leading to these points. Place the shapes as shown in the figure below:

  1. Configure the services. Name it fareGates.
  2. It's evident that two fare gates are not enough. Increase the Number of services to 6. Symmetrically, change the N of queues also to 6.
  3. Change the Type of service from Point to Linear.

    Linear and point services

    There are two types of services: Linear and Point.

    You will see that the service points became lines:

      Modifying the process flowchart

      Now we will modify the model flowchart.

      Modify the model flowchart

      1. Prepare the place for the new block in our flowchart. Move goToTrains and inFlowSink blocks to the right as shown below:

      1. Now we can insert PedService block in our flowchart. PedService simulates how pedestrians go to the services defined graphically with the markup shape and get serviced there. Drag PedService block from the Pedestrian Library palette onto the graphical diagram, right after the pedestrian source block. Placing the block right onto the connector, we connect the ports automatically (but please note that the right port of the pedService block should get connected, not the lower port).

      1. Now pedService will appear in the flowchart, connected automatically.

        When selecting the connector by the mouse click, its end point should be highlighted with cyan. This indicates the correct connection. In the case you do not see a cyan circle inside the port, it means that you put connector's point close by a port and you need to move the connector's end point exactly on the port.

        Configure the flowchart blocks

        1. Open the Properties of the pedService block.
        2. Rename the block to atFareGates.
        3. Choose fareGates (the name of our Service with Lines markup shape) as the Services.
        4. You can see that the Delay time is uniformly distributed with minimum value of 2 seconds and maximum value of 3 seconds. Leave it since it is typical delay time for fare gates.

        We have defined the new logic and now we can run the model and observe its behavior.

        Build the model by clicking the Build Model toolbar button. If there are some errors in your model, the Problems view appears listing all the errors found in your model. Double-click an error in the list to open the location of the error and fix it.

        After the model is successfully built, you can start it. Running the simulation, you automatically bring the current model up to date.

            Run the model

            1. Run the model. You can see that now passengers pass through fare gates and the lines get very long instantly. So we should increase the number of fare gates.

            6 fare gates. Terrible lines.

            1. Stop the model and open the properties of the service shape again. Increase the number of services and number of queues to 7.
            Run the model again and see how the things are going on now. You may think that everything is OK now. But actually we simulate the model rather slowly, to understand the global trend, we recommend you to run the model faster to get the answer whether the lines are growing or not.

              You can adjust the execution speed using Slow down and Speed up controls. Right now, it is better to switch to virtual time mode to view simulation run at its maximum speed and simulate a long period of time. To enable virtual time mode click the Run as fast as possible (virtual time mode) control.

              Simulating a long period of time gives us the answer. Lines are still growing, not so fast as before, but sometimes they may become rather significant. So... 7 fare gates probably are still not enough to serve the flow of 4000 pedestrians per hour. (Please remember that this applies to our fare gates with the service time of 2-3 seconds.)

              So let's increase the number of fare gates once more. Please change the number of services and number of queues to 8 and run the model again.

              Finally our configuration is acceptable - the station can cope with such pedestrian flow successfully.

              8 fare gates. Queues are reasonable

              So we got the first practical use of our model. This model helped us to find the required number of the service points. You can play with pedestrian arrival rates in the settings of the PedSource block and analyze how to improve the facilities to cope with the load.

              Please save the model by clicking Save (do it from time to time at a later date). Now we can continue developing our model further.

              Reference model: Subway Entrance Hall - Phase 2

              Phase 1. Simulating a simple pedestrian flow

              Phase 3. Displaying pedestrian density map